The 20th century was largely dominated by the US as a major powerhouse of scientific research and innovation, with 40% of the papers indexed in Web of Science fielded by US scientists in the 90's for example. By 2009, that figure was down to 29 percent. The US now struggles to keep pace with increased output from Europe and Asia. Yet research impact and the overall reputation of higher education institutions in the US remains strong. Why is the US lagging behind, and what can be done about it? And perhaps there is something in the structure of the US research base that is contributing to the inability to keep pace with some of the other rising nations.
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